Tissues in Animals and Plants

Plants have a variety of networks. The network of wooden vessels (xylem) functions to transport water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves, while the filter vessel network (phloem) transports nutrients from the leaves to the rest of the plant body. Both animals and humans have a variety of networks too. There are epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, cartilage tissue, nerve tissue, and so on.

Each cell of an organism varies in size. The size of the cell reflects the functions that the cell performs. All the living functions of single-celled organisms are carried out by the single-cell itself. In multicellular organisms, cells often cannot work alone. Each cell depends on other cells. This cooperation and interaction between cells allow the organism to survive. Cells that have the same function and form will be grouped. This group of cells is called a network.

Tissues in Animals and Plants

tissues in animals and plants

1) Animal Tissue

Each animal tissue consists of several types of differentiable cells. For example, as follows.

a) Epithelium

Epithelial tissue is made of compacted cells arranged in a flat layer. This tissue lines the various cavities and tubes in the body and forms the skin that wraps around the body.

The function of the epithelial tissue is to protect the underlying tissue against damage due to mechanical friction, UV radiation, and bacterial attack, coat all digestive glands in the body, water tubes, and lung cavities and produce sex cells that will be released from the body.

b) Connective / Liaison

Connective or connective tissue consists of 3 parts, namely the supporting connective tissue, fibrous connective tissue, and hematopoietic tissue / spinal cord.

Supporting connective tissue functions to provide strength, assistance, and protection to weak parts of the body, for example, cartilage. The connective tissue binding functions to bind body parts, for example, tendons.

The fibrous connective tissue functions as (1) the packaging and binding material for most organs, and (2) the passage for blood vessels. For example, the muscle membrane (fascia) is a fibrous connective tissue that binds the muscles together and binds the skin to the underlying structures.

Hematopoietic tissue / spinal cord is the source of all cells present in the blood. Includes red blood cells (to transport gases), five (5) kinds of white blood cells (for antibodies), and platelets (for blood clotting).

c) Muscle

Muscle tissue consists of smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. Smooth muscles line the walls of the hollow organs of the body. For example, the intestines and contracted blood vessels shrink the size of the hollow organs of the body.

Skeletal muscles, consisting of long fibers whose contractions cause locomotion and also the occurrence of various other body movements. Meanwhile, the heart muscle is the muscle that makes up the heart.

d) Nerves

Nerves are made up of neurons, which are specialized cells that deliver electrochemical nerve implants. Each neuron consists of a cell body that contains a nucleus and has hair-like connections. It is along with this connection that nerve impulses (neurites/axons), the ends of these connections (dendrites) meet with other neurons or other tissues (such as muscles).

2) Plant Network

The plant tissue is grouped into two, namely meristem tissue and permanent tissue.

a) Meristem network

Based on the origin of its formation, the meristem network is divided into three, namely promeristem, primary meristem, and secondary meristem. According to its location, the meristem tissue is divided into apical, intercalar, and lateral meristems. Meanwhile, based on the basic properties of cells, meristem tissue is divided into primary meristems and secondary meristems.

b) Permanent Network

Permanent tissue includes epidermal tissue, parenchyma tissue, support tissue (collenchyma and sclerenchyma), transport tissue (xylem and phloem), and cork tissue.

3) Network Functions

Network functions vary according to location, position, age, and the influence of external factors, namely, as follows.

a) Meristem Network

Is an active network dividing? Also called meristematic or embryonal tissue. Found at the end of the root, stem tip, and vascular cambium. Grow vertically and horizontally.

Permanent / Adult tissue, namely epidermal tissue. It is a layer of flat, thin, tight cells. Located outermost / edge. Has a cuticle / waxy coating. Serves to cover the surface of leaves, flowers, fruit, and roots.

The Stereon / Amplifier Network, namely the sclerenchyma network. Are cells that have died, consisting of fiber, and stone cells. Experiencing thickening of the entire cell wall by lignin/wood substances. It is stiff / breaks easily. Serves to protect and strengthen the inside of the cell.

b) Kolenkim Network

The thickening occurs in the corners of the cell by cellulose. Are flexible / flexible. Contains chlorophyll. There are stems, leaves, fruit, and roots. Serves to strengthen the plant body.

c) Parenchyma Network

Also called basic network. It is also on the transport file (BP). They come in various forms, such as poles/palisades, sponges, stars, and folds. The cells are thin and have intercellular spaces (r.a.s.). Serves to store reserves of food, water, water, photosynthesis, and transportation.

d) Transportation Network

The transport network consists of xylem and phloem tissue. Xylem network is called wood network. Located at the very innermost. Have a thickened tracheid. Serves to transport water, mineral salts, and nutrients from the roots to the leaves and all body tissues

Phloem network is Also called filter network. Located outside the xylem network. It has small filter cells and neighboring cells. Serves to transport photosynthetic products from the leaves to the rest of the plant body.

e) Cork / Periderm Network

Is a replacement cell for the epidermis that has died. Contains suberin/cork substances. Serves as a protector and a water transportation route.

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