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The Social Situation of Countries in Southeast Asia

In this article, we will review the natural appearance and social conditions of the countries that are members of ASEAN. Geographically, Indonesia is located between the Asian Continent and the Australian Continent and is flanked by two oceans, namely the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Indonesia is a country located on the Asian continent to be precise in the Southeast Asia region. Indonesia is a country with the largest area in Southeast Asia. The total area of ​​Indonesia is approximately 9.8 million km2 consisting of land with an area of ​​about 1.9 million km2 and waters of around 7.9 million km2.

Other countries in Southeast Asia are Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. The countries located in Southeast Asia then formed an organization called the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The purpose of establishing ASEAN is to carry out cooperation between countries in Southeast Asia.

Together with these neighboring countries, Indonesia maintains friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation. Countries adjacent to Indonesia are called neighboring countries. Other neighboring countries are Australia, Papua New Guinea, and East Timor.

The Social Situation of Countries in Southeast Asia

the social situation of countries in southeast asia

1. Indonesia

a. Natural conditions

Indonesia is an archipelago consisting of large and small islands. The number of islands in Indonesia is 13,667 islands. The major islands include Sumatra Island, Java Island, Kalimantan Island, Sulawesi Island, and Papua Island.

The natural appearance in Indonesia consists of a series of mountains, mountains, seas, rivers, and lakes. The highest mountains in Indonesia are in Papua, namely the Sudirman Mountains with the highest peak called Puncak Jaya, which reaches 5030 meters. The longest river in the Kapuas River (Kalimantan), while the largest is Lake Toba (North Sumatra). Indonesia is located on the equator so the climate is tropical. Do you still remember which cities in Indonesia are traversed by the equator?

b. Form of government

The capital city of Indonesia is Jakarta, with the form of the Republic of Indonesia, and is headed by a president. The president is elected by the people. In running the government, the President is assisted by ministers who are elected by the President. The currency of Indonesia is Rupiah. The national anthem of Indonesia is Indonesia Raya.

c. Economic activity

Indonesia is a country rich in natural resources. Therefore, the economic activities of the Indonesian nation cover various fields ranging from agriculture, industry, mining, and tourism. Indonesia is one of the largest tea-producing countries in the world. Apart from that, other plantation products such as oil palm, rubber, coffee, wood, rattan, and spices are also considered export commodities. Indonesia is also a country that produces oil and other mining products such as coal, natural gas, tin, gold, iron and steel, aluminum, diamonds, silver, and other mining products.

In the industrial sector, Indonesia produces fabrics and apparel. Several Southeast Asian countries also import raw materials and food ingredients from Indonesia. Tourism is a significant source of state revenue for Indonesia, one of which is tourism on the island of Bali.

2. Malaysia

a. Natural conditions

The territory of Malaysia is approximately 330,434 km2 which consists of two parts, namely the territory of West Malaysia and East Malaysia.

The West Malaysia region is located on the Malacca peninsula which consists of eleven states, namely Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Penang, Pahang, Perlis, Kelantan, Malacca, Johor, and Trenggano. The highest mountain is called Gunung Tahan with a height of 2,190 meters.

East Malaysia is located in the north of Kalimantan, consisting of two states, namely Sarawak and Sabah. There is also the highest mountain here, Mount Kinabalu which reaches an altitude of 4,101 meters.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur. The form of the country is a kingdom. The head of state is a king with the title Yang Dipertuan Agung chosen by the kings of the states. The heads of the states are kings. The currency of Malaysia is the Ringgit, and the National Anthem is My Country. The one who runs the government is the Prime Minister.

c. Economic activity

Malaysian economic activities, especially in the fields of agriculture, plantation, mining, and industry. In agriculture and plantations, rubber, palm oil, pepper, tea, rice, and copra are produced. Mining produces iron ore, petroleum, bauxite, and tin ore. This tin ore makes Malaysia the largest producing country in the world. In the industrial sector, Malaysia produces electronic goods.

3. Singapore

a. Natural conditions

The area of ​​Singapore is about 622 km2 which consists of small islands. Singapore is a country with a strategic location because it is in a cross position of shipping lanes from countries in East Asia, West Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, and America.

This situation is exploited by the Singapore government by building a port that provides transportation facilities and warehouses. With good service, many ships stop at Singapore ports, making Singapore the busiest port in Asia.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Singapore is Singapore. The form of the state of Singapore is the Republic headed by a President with the head of government being the prime minister. The currency of Singapore is the Singapore Dollar (S $). Its national anthem is Majulah Singapura.

c. Economic activity

Singapore's economic activities, especially in banking and industrial services. The industrial sector produces electronic goods and foodstuffs. However, due to the country's limited size, to obtain industrial raw materials, Singapore imports from other countries, including Indonesia. The types of raw materials imported from Indonesia include tin, crude oil, and natural gas. Singapore is the only ASEAN country where the population is mostly from industry and services.

4. Brunei Darussalam

a. Natural conditions

The area of ​​Brunei Darussalam is approximately 5,765 km2. It is located in North Kalimantan. To the south, west and east, it is directly adjacent to Sarawak (the eastern state of Malaysia), while in the north it is bordered by the South China Sea. The Brunei region consists of two regions, namely the western region and the eastern region. The western region is lowland and swampy area, while the eastern region is a hilly area. Brunei Darussalam has a mountain with a height of up to 1,850 meters.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Brunei Darussalam is Bandar Seri Begawan. The form of the country is the sultanate. The head of state and head of government is the Sultan. The currency of Brunei Darussalam is the Brunei Dollar (Br $). The national anthem is Praise to the Sultan.

c. Economic activity

Brunei Darussalam's economic activities are mainly in the mining of petroleum and natural gas. Brunei is the largest oil producer in Asia. Brunei imports from other countries for other goods, such as electronics, vehicles, rice, sugar, vegetables, and fruits.

The richest country in Southeast Asia is Brunei Darussalam. The per capita income of the population is the highest among other Southeast Asian residents.

5. the Philippines

a. Natural conditions

The area of ​​the Philippines is about 300,000 km2. Like Indonesia, the Philippines is an archipelago country. The number of islands is approximately 7,100 islands. The major islands are Luzon Island, Mindoro Island, Palawan, Cebu, Negros, and Mindanao Island. The Philippine Islands are part of the Pacific Rim Mountains and have many volcanoes, some of which are still active. The highest mountain on Luzon Island is Mount Mayon with a height of 2,421 meters, while the highest mountain on Mindanao Island is Mount Apo with an altitude of 1,954 meters. The largest port city in the Philippines is Cavite on the island of Luzon.

b. Form of government

The capital of the Philippines is Manila. The form of the country is the Republic with the head of state-led by the President. The head of government of the Philippines is the President. The presidential palace of the Philippines named Malacanang is located in the City of Manila. The currency of the Philippines is the Peso. Its national anthem is Tierra Adorada.

c. Economic activity

The economic activities of the Philippine population are in the fields of agriculture, mining, and industry. The agricultural products consist of rice, pineapple, and sugar. Its mining products include gold, copper, cobalt, nickel, iron ore, and petroleum. In the Philippines, to be precise, in the city of Los Banos, there is an International Rice Research Institute, which in English is called the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

6. Thailand

a. Natural conditions

The area of ​​Thailand is approximately 513,998 km2. Thailand consists of lowlands, hills, and mountains. The lowlands are fed by the Chao Phraya River, making it a very fertile area in Thailand. The highest mountains are in the north and west with the highest peak is Mount Doi Inthanon with an altitude of 2,594 meters.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Thailand is Bangkok, with the form of the country is a kingdom. The head of state is the king, while the head of government is the prime minister. Thailand's currency is the Baht. The national anthem is Pleng Chard.

c. Economic activity

The economic activities of the Thai population are in the fields of agriculture, forestry, mining, and industry. Thailand is the largest rice producer in Asia, so it is known as the Asian rice granary. Its mining products include tin and manganese. The forest product is teak, while the industries include textiles, cement, and electronic goods.

Thailand is the only country in Asia that has never been colonized by Europeans or Americans.

7. Myanmar

a. Natural conditions

The area of ​​Myanmar is approximately 676,552 km2. The climate in Myanmar is divided into two, namely the southern part of Myanmar has a tropical climate, while the northern part has a subtropical climate. In the eastern part, there is a plateau that separates Myanmar and Thailand. In the middle, there is a lowland which is flowed by the Irawadi River and several other rivers. The north is bordered by China and India which are mountains (part of the Himalayas). In the southern part, there is a coastline along the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

b. Form of government

The capital of Myanmar is Yangon. The form of the country is a republic. The head of state and head of government is the president. The currency of Myanmar is the Kyat. The national anthem is Our Free Homeland.

c. Economic activity

The livelihoods of the Myanmar population are in the fields of agriculture, forestry, plantations, and mining. The main agricultural product of Myanmar is rice which is the largest producer in Southeast Asia. The plantation products are cotton, tobacco, and sugar cane. The forest products are teak, while the mining products are gold, silver, zinc, tin, copper, and petroleum

8. Cambodia

a. Natural conditions

Cambodia is located on the Indochina peninsula. It is bordered by Laos to the north, Vietnam to the east and south, while Thailand to the west and north. Cambodia has an area of ​​about 181,300 km2. The area of ​​Cambodia which is traversed by the Mekong River is a fertile area. There are the Cardamon mountains along the 160 km bordering Thailand. The peak of the Cardamon mountains is 1,813 meters. In general, Cambodia has a tropical climate.

b. Form of government

The form of the state of Cambodia is a republic. The capital city of Cambodia is Phnom Penh. The head of state of Cambodia is the President, while the head of government is the prime minister. The currency of Cambodia is the Cambodian Riel. Its national anthem is Our Country.

c. Economic activity

The livelihoods of the Cambodian population are mainly in agriculture. The agricultural products are rice, corn, and rubber. Cambodia is also one of the largest rice producers in Southeast Asia.

9. Vietnam

a. Natural conditions

Vietnam is located on the Indochina peninsula. Its area is approximately 331,690 km2. China borders the north, Laos, and Cambodia in the west, and the South and East border the South China Sea. In Vietnam, there are several mountains and river deltas.

In the northwest, there are the northern mountains with the highest peak called Fan-Si-Pan with an altitude of 3,143 meters.

The Annam Mountains are in the western region ranging from the northern mountains to 80 km north of Saigon City.

The Red River Delta stretches from the northern mountains to the Bay of Tonkin. This area is a fertile area so that it is used as an agricultural area.

The Mekong Delta is formed from the Mekong River. Vietnam is a country with a tropical climate.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Vietnam is Hanoi. The form of the country is a socialist republic with the head of state being the president. The head of government is headed by the prime minister. The currency of Vietnam is Dong. His national anthem is Tien Quan Ca (Forward Soldier).

c. Economic activity

Vietnam's economic activities are in the fields of agriculture, industry, and mining. The livelihood of the Vietnamese population is mainly in agriculture so that the main product is rice. Other agricultural products are maize, sugar cane, tea, fruit, and tobacco. Industrial products include textiles, cement, fertilizer, and tires. Meanwhile, the mining products are gold, iron ore, coal, tin, zinc, and phosphate.

10. Laos

a. Natural conditions

Laos is located on the Indochina peninsula, with an area of ​​approximately 236,800 km2. Laos has a temperate climate. Laos territory is generally surrounded by forests and mountains. China is bordered to the north, Vietnam to the east, Thailand and Cambodia to the south, and Myanmar and Thailand to the west. The northern Laos region contains mountains and plateaus that stretch along the eastern boundary with the peak being Mount Bia. The only country in Southeast Asia that does not have a sea area in Laos.

An important river in Laos is the Mekong River which flows from southwest to southeast up to the Thai border. This area along the Mekong River was used as an agricultural area. The Mekong River is also used as a means of transportation.

b. Form of government

The capital city of Laos is Vientiane and it is a republic. The head of state is the president, while the head of government is the prime minister. The currency of Laos is the New Kip (KN). The national song is Sat Lao Tang Te Deum Ma'Khan Sulu Sa You Nei Asie.

c. Economic activity

The economic activities of the Lao population are mainly in the agricultural sector. The agricultural products are rice, vegetables, bananas, papaya, coconut, and corn. Apart from farming, there is also a livestock business that produces cattle, buffalo, pigs, and poultry.

Cooperation Relations between ASEAN Countries

Have you ever watched SEA GAMES? SEA GAMES is an example of a form of cooperation between ASEAN countries in the field of sports. Cooperation between ASEAN member countries covers the economic, political, social, and cultural fields.

Several forms of cooperation between ASEAN countries in the economic sector include:

Organizing industrial projects together with ASEAN member countries, with a share of 60% of the country where the industry is, and 40% equally among other ASEAN members. Industrial factories that have been established include:

  • Ammonia urea fertilizer factory in Aceh, Indonesia
  • Ammonia urea fertilizer factory in Malaysia
  • Marine diesel plant in Singapore
  • Superphosphate plant in the Philippines
  • Soda ash factory in Thailand
  • Vaccine factory in Singapore
  • A copper industrial plant in the Philippines

Increasing trade cooperation by reducing import duties for export-import trade between ASEAN countries.

The cooperation that exists in the political field includes: Enter into extradition agreements between ASEAN members, Working together to tackle narcotics and other illegal drugs.

Apart from the aforementioned forms of cooperation, there are also forms of cooperation in the socio-cultural field, namely:

  • Organizing cultural and artistic mission exchanges, for example, the Titian Muhibah event organized by TVRI (Indonesia) and RTM (Malaysia), and the Asia Bagus event attended by participants from countries in Asia.
  • Organizing a joint sports party called SEA GAMES, which is held every two years. The place of implementation changes.
  • Increase cooperation in the tourism sector.